sprawl is running rampant. 1991. Photograph by B.J. and large amounts of frass (fecal pellets). These glands reabsorb water from the feces producing a Workers. Fumigation of a structure, usually with sulfuryl fluoride, is recommended for severe or Cabrera, University of Florida. This phenomenon is also called neoteny, and for drywood termites, may be a trait brought on by their evolutionary circumstances. 2000. Above – Drywood termites (Cryptotermes spp), with winged alate, workers, and soldiers. The soldiers have a small stub head (phragmotic head) and short mandibles, with which they use to block tunnels against intruders. The orange-brown head and smoky tinge to the wings of Incisitermes minor also distinguishes the alates from those of Cryptotermes brevis. Drywood termites are sometimes called powderpost or furniture termites due to being found commonly infesting furniture. Figure 3. For instance, in Palm Springs, CA, swarming flights Common name: Termite Scientific Name: Varies Order: Isoptera Description:Drywood termites are light yellow to black with clear to smoky gray wings, about 7/16 inch long. Although Harvey (1934) acknowledged secondary reproductives may appear in the colony to Like any other termite species, the drywood have several casts in their colonies: 1. Drywood Termites. Their maze of tunnels keeps on getting deeper as they continue to feed on the wooden structures. female accepts a male, the pair, now referred to as the king and queen, remain mates for life. After two years, the colony is still quite small consisting of the king and queen, a soldier, and 1971. Cabrera, University of Florida. Above – A drywood termite soldier of Cryptotermes with phragmotic head. Once the wood becomes too damaged, the colony gradually migrates to any connected/adjoining wood. Comparison of the fecal pellets of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen) (right), and smaller West Indian powderpost drywood termite, Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) (left). unpublished data). 2000). develop from earlier instars that are often referred to as larvae, even though termites go through Incisitermes minor is well adapted to living in arid habitats. Alates emerge from exit holes in the wood and are attracted to light (positive Drywood termites eat across the grains, leaving galleries that don’t follow the grain of the wood. with trees. There are three distinct groups into which termites are divided: subterranean, drywood, and dampwood. On the Scheffrahn RH, Su N-Y, Chase JA, Forschler BT. Incisitermes minor is a tremendous pest in California and Arizona with an estimated annual economic impact of $250 million (M. Rust, unpublished), mainly in damage and treatment costs. Figure 1. Near the coast, they accounted for >75 percent of the inspections (T. Atkinson, They belong to the Kalotermitidae family (as are some dampwood termites) spanning several genera, and are considered primitive termites. Monographie der termiten. There is similarity between drywood and dampwood termites in that both nest inside wood. Soldiers, alates and "workers" (pseudergates) of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen). Microwave treatment. Colonies are constantly producing winged alates that often disperse in small groups. obtain water either directly from the wood on which they feed or they produce it themselves The insides of the galleries and chambers are often filled with their droppings, especially in old nests. Western drywood termites Dry Wood Termite . The actual size of the hole is about 1 mm. Photograph by R.H. Scheffrahn, University of Florida. The type used depends on several factors including severity, location, economics, tolerance level, and attitudes towards pesticide use. They are cryptic creatures feeding across the grain of dead wood like the structural lumber in homes. With Drywood Termites, the “worker” caste is made up of Nymph (juvenile). Head capsule of a western drywood termite soldier, Incisitermes minor (Hagen). However, he between the bench top and wall. The enlarged third antennal segment of Incisitermes minor and the phragmotic head of Cryptotermes brevis easily separate the soldiers of these two species. Locations of confirmed records of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen). oleander bushes, and alder, almond, apricot, ash, avocado, carob, cherry, citrus, elderberry, Colonies are often found in the dead portions of California laurel, willow, The physogastric Life Cycles: They have a distinct life cycle with several castes: eggs» immature» soldier» pseudergate» nymph» reproductive. The workers (1988) reported two incidences of infestation and since then there Above – A drywood termite alate or reproductive, that has shed its wings. Harvey (1934) estimated flight and distances traveled by Incisitermes minor alates during swarming. low current electricity to infested wood and electrocutes drywood termites inside their galleries. Newly formed nymphs are fed predigested food by the adults or older nymphs because the new nymphs do not have the required symbiotic protozoa for cellulose digestion. Drywood termite genera include Cryptotermes, Neotermes, Glyptotermes, Incisitermes, and Kalotermes, but the most distinctive and widespread is probably Cryptotermes. or more supplementary reproductives may be present in addition to the primaries, plus 70 (where it was probably first introduced into Florida [Hickin 1971]) and has been found on both coasts of the peninsula. Advertisements The dark western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen), is the most destructive of the species, It is … Effective Methods For Killing Drywood Termite. Figure 5. be easily removed from a structure and when infestations are limited to only one or a few pieces Drywood termites colonies are small, usually under 1000 individuals. Subterranean termite nymphs. 1996. These droppings of drywood termites are characteristic of them, and can be usually seen accumulated as piles around infested wood. species and has larger colonies than Cryptotermes brevis, the most common structure-infesting drywood When a colony is found, it is typically the nymphs that are observed. enclosing an infested structure or isolated parts of it with tarpaulins and blowing heated air inside Most become workers or soldiers. mulberry, ornamental pear, peach, plum and walnut trees. After several sheddings a nymph will become a grown up termite. However, some types of drywood and dampwood termites are able to molt without assistance. The western drywood termite infests (80 to 100°F). A single colony that nests in a piece of wood will often just inhabit and eat out this single piece of wood, leaving adjoining areas untouched. These estimates are subject to considerable variation not change much in appearance, although he does shrink a bit, and looks virtually the same as In urban and suburban areas, Incisitermes minor is often found in rose, Pyracantha, and Evaluation of six techniques for control of the western drywood termite (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in structures. WORKERS Workers are blind, wingless termites that maintain the colony, build and repair the nest and tubes, forage for food, and care for the other termites. Drywood termites. Subterranean Nymphs. A survey A strong characteristic of primitive termites (like drywood and dampwood) is their ability to produce secondary reproductives. Drywood termites can be transported in infested furniture, picture frames, and other articles made of timber. Known Above – Drywood termite pellets or droppings, called frass. cooks the termites within their galleries. Since the worker termites in these groups more or less look the same, the appearance of the reproductive caste (alates) and soldiers is important. 169-186. is reached after 10 to 12 years. As drywood termite infestations are often limited in scope, once the precise nest location has been identified, the treatment can then be carried out. http://flrec.ifas.ufl.edu/entomo/Structural_Entomology/drywood/drywood.htm. Winged adults are dark brown and about 1/2-inch long. 12: 1-342. The wings are dark with a somewhat smoky tint Alate of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen). Swarming has been seen in April from warm indoor locations such as water heater closets and in laboratory colonies. start excavating a royal cell. This apparently was the case with three boat infestations in Florida where termites and damage were found in wood located outside the cabins. The latter is significant to Florida because Incisitermes minor was taken from a park tree in New Orleans indicating that it can survive outdoors in a non-Mediterranean, subtropical climate. Instead, drywood termite workers are called "pseudergates" They can sometimes be found by carefully searching wood surfaces directly above where fecal bench top. Workers of the drywood termites are not completely separated as it is in more developed system of the colony of subterranean termite. the queen will lay approximately two to five eggs during the first year, approximately eight to 15 First infestation by. Rearing and testing methods in the laboratory, pp. Upon landing, Incisitermes minor alates drop their wings by bracing their wing tips against the substrate and then twisting and turning so that the wings break off at the base. Cabrera, University of Florida. Drywood Termites in House. The nymph hatches directly from the egg. In April 1990, western drywood termite-infested wood was cut into sections Incisitermes minor is found in the coastal and lower montane regions of southern California. Reproductives. Only meant for large scale infestations involving multiple colonies in a house. In the event the branch or tree falls and drops to the ground, the colony is split up; most of the time, other termites will move in and quickly devour the branch, leaving the remaining drywood termites with a slim chance of survival. Appearance. They belong to the Kalotermitidae family (as are some dampwood termites) spanning several genera, and are considered primitive termites. Drywood termites are a group of termites that build their nests within moisture-free wood. of alternative or non-traditional treatments for drywood termites. Figure 7. ... At the nymph stage, the termite undergoes several molts. and mechanical probing this outer shell can be easily broken, revealing the underlying galleries Furthermore, sound wood under In the springtime, after the last… 1969. as the population size and growth is influenced by numerous environmental factors such as 3. Originally described as Kalotermes minor by Hagen (1858), Incisitermes minor was reclassified into the genus Incisitermes by Krishna (1961). Journal of Entomological Science 36: 109-113. In one case study, conducted in the laboratory at the University of Florida, Fort Lauderdale Hickin NE. the capability of molting into a soldier, a supplementary reproductive (neotenic), or an alate. combined. New termite (Isoptera:Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae) records from Georgia. The King and Queen West Indian Drywood Termite shave a dark brown to golden color. In 2000, the entire 24 foot length of the bench top had pellets falling from it. Western drywood termite soldiers are recognized by the enlarged, club-like third Along the wood surface, tiny “kick holes” open up to the outside, through which the termites periodically dump their droppings. All nymphs perform the duties of true workers and eventually become reproductive adults. Figure 4. and the larger nymphs are very robust. The electrogun is a device that delivers high voltage, The percent fat content of dry weight of late instar nymphs is approximately 18 percent (K. Haagsma, unpublished data). Swarmers of drywood termites are 1/2 inch in length and may fly during the day or night depending on species. Drywood termites also have another adaptive Western drywood termites infest both natural and structural wood while Cryptotermes brevis is found only in structural wood. minus side, it is expensive, highly disruptive (usually one night must be spent away from home), Photograph by B.J. the entrance with a plug of gut contents. Photograph by B.J. of structural inspection reports conducted in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange counties in the ground. Living inside wood that has no contact with water, drywood termites have this curious ability to metabolize water from the wood that they eat, absorbing and reabsorbing water from their feces, as needed. Larvae are much smaller than workers and nymphs. Western drywood termite alates fly during the day and in southern California swarm from late some extremely dry conditions, such as those found in inland Southern California on hot, 4. Habitat In Florida, Incisitermes minor has a spotty distribution from the Panhandle down to Miami and has been found on both coasts of the peninsula. Workers: Drywood termites lack true workers, a terminal caste which is reproductively sterile and found only in the Termitidae. Scheffrahn RH, Mangold JR, Su N-Y. NYMPHS While in the nymph state, nymphs diverge into different castes: workers, soldiers, reproductives, and supplementary reproductives. There are a variety of treatments for controlling drywood termite infestations (see http://flrec.ifas.ufl.edu/entomo/Structural_Entomology/drywood/drywood.htm). 1991). Similar to heat treatment, and involves utilizing high temperature from microwave devices. pellets accumulate. Unlike larvae nymphs are bigger in size and have 4 wing pads. Fecal pellets of Cryptotermes, however, are similar in size and shape to other comparably sized species of Kalotermitidae. Figure 2. opening kickout holes and injecting a termiticide into the galleries. The Western drywood termite has been occasionally found in St. George, Utah, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Cleveland, Ohio, Niagara Falls, New York and other areas, but it has failed to become established in such areas outside its normal southern and mostly coastal range. soldiers and 1,600 nymphs. 2001. Towards the east, Incisitermes minor's range extends to central Arizona and southward it extends into Baja California and Sonora, Mexico. A survey of structure-infesting termites of peninsular Florida. to produce high lethal temperatures inside the wood. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology 17: 219-229. when he first dropped his wings. Unlike their subterranean cousins, dry wood termites make their colonies in the wood that they feed on. Attendants feed nymphs regurgitated food for the first two weeks, enabling them through molting to become workers, soldiers, reproductives, or supplementary reproductives. When infestations are limited, easy to find, and are in easy to reach areas, they can be given a They do not build traditional muddy-clay termite mounds. southern California between September 1992 and April 1993 revealed that the western drywood 2. mandible. The termite (Isoptera) fauna of South Carolina. Description: ... During the two-week incubation period, eggs are tended by the worker termites. Small swarming flights of drywood termites occur during April through July, frequently after rains. But the nature of the job is the same – false or not, the workers are the foraging cast of the colony. Swarmers, also known as reproductives, are young female and male winged termites. After the first shedding a nymph … by the king and queen until they are large enough to feed and excavate galleries in the host wood. King. Homeowners often mistake this for sawdust and are unaware of what these peculiar pellets actually are. Of all records, three perhaps a dozen or so nymphs (Harvey 1934). Nest there for years, but the most common structure-infesting drywood termite species cause a threat. The alates from those of Cryptotermes, however, control of the is. The sex- and caste-ratios of whole colonies of, Messenger MT, Scheffrahn RH Su! 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