English from Punjab University. Ayres, A. Nevertheless, English language is legitimately dominant language of dominant people in the country. Hardman, F., Abd-Kadir, J., & Smith, F. (2008). At the college and university level all instruction is in English. In N. H. Hornberger (Ed.). Shamim, F. (2012). Theory and practice language education models in Africa: Research, design, decision-making, and outcomes’. Alidou, H., Boly, A., Brock-Utne, B., Diallo, Y. S., Heugh, K., & Wolff, H. E. (2006). The earlier document was subjected to public scrutiny in Pakistan through a series of policy dialogues, conference presentations, ministerial level discussions and radio phone-in programmes. Teaching and learning approaches suggest that teachers seldom use and expose students to meaningful practice of the English language. principals. This suggests that early exposure to English may help students in developing the English language proficiency (Ortega, 2009). PBA builds on the current work on language policy and practice, but instead of providing a set of standards, it identifies a set of principles that can help policymakers in diverse contexts develop locally appropriate language policies and practices. Mesthrie, R. (2006). (2002). Employing a mixed methodology, ABSTRACT The politics of language policy in Pakistan. English as Medium of Instruction in Pakistani Educational System: Necessity or Hegemony. Only English and Urdu are taught as media of instruction in the government and the private schools and colleges. We argue that in broader terms, the English-only policy poses potential reductionist effects on existing language ecology, and English-medium private schooling furthers socioeconomic disparities between the haves and the have-nots. In M. Stephen & N. H. Hornberger (Eds.). Because of its use in the domains of power, English can be seen as a source of self-improvement and as a means of career success (Mansoor, 2003; Rahman, 2002). Actual English teaching practices appear illusory, as direct and principals and experts observers, the study finds that early English-medium policy appears, delusional as those beliefs are underpinned neither by, tongue based multilingual policy. off late. English Language Education Policy in Asia (pp.219-244), Access to English in Pakistan: a source of prestige or a hindrance to success, REPRODUCTION OF LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE IN SOUTHERN PUNJAB, Agentive Apprenticeship of Observation and English Teacher Identity: A Pakistani Case of Learning to Teach English, EXPECTATIONS AND REALITY OF LEARNER AUTONOMY AND COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IN PAKISTANI HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS: A REVIEW, ROLE OF ESL INSTRUCTORS AND LEARNERS' ATTITUDE TO USE PEDAGOGICAL TECHNIQUES IN DEVELOPING READING SKILLS AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL: A CASE STUDY OF LAHORE, PAKISTAN, Top-down English policy and bottom-up teacher take: An interview-based insight from the Balochistan province of Pakistan, Passport to Privilege: Access to English in Different School Systems in Pakistan, English Language in Education and Globalization: A Comparative Analysis of the Role of English in Pakistan and China, The role of English in developing countries: English is a passport to privilege and needed for survival in Pakistan, Measuring School Support for Learning English as a Foreign Language through SSELL, Language in Education in Pakistan: Recommendations for Policy and Practice, English as the language of development in Pakistan: Issues, challenges and possible solutions, Dreams and Realities: Developing Countries and the English Language. Although English is inevitable for academic purposes in schools, several local factors such as institutional incapacity, unqualified teachers, and students’ weak cultural/linguistic base in English make this policy problematic. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. (2007). In T. Skutnabb-Kangas, R. Phillipson, M. Panda, & A. K. Mohanty (Eds.). Skutnabb-Kangas, T., & Toukomaa, P. (1976). In the country of Pakistan, English is a co-official language with Urdu. Courts conduct their business in English. different communication needs, there is a concern that people might lose their own identity if English is viewed as more important than their own mother tongue. The policy states that the measure shall develop the students’ English proficiency that would later help them compete. English as an international language in Asia: Implications for language education. confusion. Language Planning in Higher Education: Case Study of Pakistan. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. This study aimed to explore the reproduction of linguistic competence in southern Punjab, Pakistan. In T. Skutnabb-Kangas, R. Phillipson, A. K. Mohanty, & M. Panda (Eds.). The major concerns being illiteracy and alienation from the indigenous literature, folklore, history and the inculcation of negative perception about the instrumental utility of those languages among the speakers. The Aga Khan University Institute for Educational Development presents a global research seminar: Topic: Social Meanings of language policy and practices: A critical linguistic ethnographic study of four schools in Pakistan Presenter: Muhammad Ali Khan. It has far more implications for cultural, economic, political, and social issues. In Pakistan, English is usually taught, except in elite schools, through grammar translation methods in which the teacher reads an English text followed by translation into Urdu or other local languages, as was done in colonial times. Owing to globalization and communication development, the role of the English language is changing; thus, there is need to change the policies and ideologies surrounding English instruction, particularly when English functions as a lingua franca. The medium of instruction controversy in Pakistan. Cell: 042-36673110, Email: Website: The language of the courts is also English. In M. P. G. Mayo & M. L. G. Lecumberri (Eds.). unfavorably presuming that more languages will amount to learners’ According to Nyinondi et al. This is probably due to the availability of appropriate instructional practices in elite schools, which are usually not available in general schools. Teachers' competence level, learner autonomy, new teaching strategies and learning assessment in language teaching are the areas that required research and to fill the literature gap, ... (Soomro, Memon, & Memon, 2016)highlights in their studies that this exam to explore contemporary educational methods for teaching and learning English, and to present ideas for ESL / EFL best practices for strong language education in Pakistan. Language matters, so does culture: Beyond the rhetoric of culture in multilingual education. Manan, S. A., David, M. K., & Dumanig, F. P. (2014). After partition Pakistan, with its colonial past, had the choice of either adopting the language of its erstwhile masters; English, as its state language or the language of the majority, Bangla. Manan, S. A., & David, M. K. (2013). 'Towards Multilingual Education: Basque Educational Research in International Perspective' is an up to date and comprehensive review of research involving Basque, Spanish and English in Basque schools. Finally, this paper argues for the importance of viewing English language teaching through a multilingual perspective, and contextualizing language policies to readdress learners’ different needs and goals of English learning. policy inevitable, and believe that the earlier the English-medium policy, However, access to English may not be the same for people of different socioeconomic statuses, because there are different schools for the elites to which ordinary people have no access. Hence, English is a valuable source of confidence and development for high SES students, but a main source of frustration and failure for low SES students. Mohanty, A. K. (2010). Empowering Indigenous Languages: What can be learned from Native American experiences? But, ironically, the constitution of Pakistan is in English, the language and education policies’ text is in English. English is perceived as a passport to better employment and upward social mobility in Pakistan. time. Urdu is its national language and it is the mother tongue of almost 7.57 percent people of Pakistan, although it is used at a wide range in the urban areas of Pakistan. English is one of the official languages in Pakistan and the most prestigious language in the language hierarchy. Benson, C. J. Learning through a familiar language versus learning through a foreign language – A look into some secondary school classrooms in Tanzania. Benson, C. J. Recommendations regarding the further development of policy for language in school-level education in Pakistan are presented. The book is based on the on author PhD thesis that examined the current language division between the public sector that is in Urdu medium and private sector in English medium. (2006). By drawing upon the language planning framework proposed by Kaplan, Baldauf, and Kamwangamalu (2011) and applying convenient sampling technique, the researchers conducted thirty-one semi-structured interviews with urban and rural male and female teachers who teach in Grades 1 to 5. Skutnabb-Kangas, T., & Dunbar, R. (2010). In this project, we have focused Langue planning and language policy (LPLP) generally, in particular, in Pakistani context and discussed the dilemma of language policy in Pakistan. Although British rule in India lasted for almost two hundred years, the areas which lie in what is now Pakistan were amongst the last to be annexed: Sindh in 1842, Punjab (which initially included the North-West Frontier Province) in 1849, and parts of Baluchistan, including Quetta and the outer regions in 1879, while the rest of the Baluchistan region became a princely state within the British Indian Empire. 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