The best known honey bee is the western honey bee (Apis mellifera), which has been domesticated for honey production and crop pollination; the only other domesticated bee is the eastern honey bee (Apis cerana), which occurs in South Asia. The first Apis bees appear in the fossil record at the EoceneâOligocene(23-56 Mya) boundary, in European deposits.  Honey bees, signifying immortality and resurrection, were royal emblems of the Merovingians.  On the other hand, it may cause severe allergic reactions in some individuals. , Honey bees require water to maintain osmotic homeostasis, prepare liquid brood food, and to cool the hive through evaporation. , The only domesticated species of honey bee are A. mellifera and A. cerana, and they are often maintained, fed, and transported by beekeepers. During the summer, however, this is achieved through fanning and water evaporation from water collected in various fields. The dwarf honey bee, Apis florea, is one of two species of small, wild honey bees of southern and southeastern Asia. They are important pollinating agents in their region of occurrence. , A 2020 study of Apis cerana in Vietnam found that they use feces and even human urine to defend their hives against raids by hornets (Vespa soror), a strategy not replicated by their European and North American counterparts, though collection and use of feces in nest construction is well-known in stingless bees. Pollen is the only natural protein source for honey bees. A. andreniformis is also found in the southern China peninsula, Malaysia, and Borneo. Gudrun Koeniger's 68 research works with 1,998 citations and 9,097 reads, including: Marked interspecific differences in the neuroanatomy of the male olfactory system of honey bees (genus Apis ) The sting chamber of the returning queens contained the orange-colored secretion  It is marketed for its alleged but unsupported claims of health benefits. The dance language is also used during the process of reproductive fission, or swarming, when scouts communicate the location and quality of nesting sites..  Sex determination in honey bees is initially due to a single locus, called the complementary sex determiner (csd) gene. A colony's water needs can generally be met by nectar foraging as it has high water content. The benefit of policing is negated, and policing is less favored.  Einstein is sometimes misquoted as saying If bees disappeared off the face of the earth, man would only have four years left to live. The dwarf honey bee (or red dwarf honey bee), Apis florea, is one of two species of small, wild honey bees of southern and southeastern Asia. They make very small, exposed nests in trees and shrubs. synchronous manner; at the same time, a hissing sound is The forager bees do not perform a gravity oriented waggle dance on the vertical face of the comb to recruit nestmates as in the domesticated Apis mellifera and other species.  Some studies have suggested a queen pheromone which may help workers distinguish worker- and queen-laid eggs, but others indicate egg viability as the key factor in eliciting the behavior. Notably, living representatives of the earliest lineages to diverge (Apis florea and Apis andreniformis) have their center of origin there.. Both G. mellonella adults and larvae are possible vectors for pathogens that can infect bees, including the Israeli acute paralysis virus and the black queen cell virus. Singapore has four species of bees: the stingless bee (Trigona), Asian Honey Bee (Apis cerana), Dwarf Honey Bee (Apis andreniformis), Giant Honey Bee (Apis dorsata) The colony size of an average hive is about 10,000 to 20,000 bees. It is wild and can be very fierce. Honey is the complex substance made when bees ingest nectar, process it, and store the substance into honey combs.  Adult worker honey bees require 4 mg of utilizable sugars per day and larvae require about 59.4 mg of carbohydrates for proper development. Among the extant members of Apis, the more basal species make single, exposed combs, while the more recently evolved species nest in cavities and have multiple combs, which has greatly facilitated their domestication.  Both the Hindu Atharva Veda and the ancient Greeks associated lips anointed with honey with the gift of eloquence and even of prescience. The black dwarf bee, Apis andreniformis S., and the red dwarf bee, Apis florea F., are the smallest honey bee species in the world with worker bees of a size between 7 to 10 mm.These two species form small colonies of a few thousand bees with their nest consisting of a single comb, around 20 cm in diameter, attached to a small branch (13). Eastern Apis species include three or four species, including A. koschevnikovi, Apis nigrocincta, and A. cerana. Honey bee, not honeybee, is the listed common name in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System, the Entomological Society of America Common Names of Insects Database, and the Tree of Life Web Project. Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are not considered essential but have shown to significantly improve the number of brood reared. Free and Open Access to Biodiversity Data. The queen lays fertilized eggs â workers and unfertilized eggs â drones.  The rearing of one larva requires 125-187.5 mg pollen or 25-37.5 mg protein for proper development. , The diversity of A. mellifera subspecies is probably the product of a largely Early Pleistocene radiation aided by climate and habitat changes during the last ice age. [Quran 16:68], In ancient Egyptian mythology, honey bees were believed to be born from the tears of the Sun God, Ra. The queen shares half her genes with her sons and one-quarter with the sons of fertile female workers. In certain environments, excess pollen can be collected from the hives of A. mellifera and A. cerana. Once mated, queens may lay up to 2,000 eggs per day. As in a few other types of eusocial bees, a colony generally contains one queen bee, a female; seasonally up to a few thousand drone bees, or males; and tens of thousands of female worker bees. Common name: black dwarf honey bee. This phenomenon usually arises when there are more than two generations of brother-sister mating. Eggs are laid within the hive, and the larvae that hatch tunnel through and destroy the honeycombs that contain bee larva and their honey stores. Radloff, Sara E.; Hepburn, H. Randall; Engel, Michael S. (2011). Many of the crops that depend on western honey bees for pollination have also been imported since colonial times. One of its subspecies, the Indian honey bee (A. c. indica), was domesticated and kept in hives in a fashion similar to A. mellifera, though on a more limited, regional scale. , Nectar is collected by foraging worker bees as a source of water and carbohydrates in the form of sucrose. They are popular among beekeepers in Brazil. It seems to have originated in eastern tropical Africa and spread from there to Europe and eastwards into Asia to the Tian Shan range. , Queen honey bees are created when worker bees feed a single female larvae an exclusive diet of a food called "royal jelly". Only eight surviving species of honey bee are recognized, with a total of 43 subspecies, though historically 7 to 11 species are recognized. Species: Apis andreniformis Smith, 1858 Hadisoesilo, Soesilawati. Apis andreniformis, commonly known as the black dwarf honey bee, is the smallest of all species of honey bees (between 6.5 mm and 9.5-10 mm), and along with Apis florea constitute the subgenus Micrapis (or dwarf honey bees). Their stings are often incapable of penetrating human skin, so the hive and swarms can be handled with minimal protection. As such, they can provide some pollination to many plants, especially non-native crops, but most native plants have some native pollinator that is far more effective at pollinating that species. Apis dorsata, the giant honey bee, is native to south and southeastern Asia, and usually makes its exposed combs on high tree limbs, or on cliffs, and sometimes on buildings. Apis cerana § Pathogens and parasites affecting Apis cerana, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Western honey bee § As an environmental threat.  But not only did the scientist not say that, there is no science to support the prediction itself. The bees swing their bodies from side to side rapidly, sending waves throughout the swarm, and more and more bees â¦  Honey bees ingest phytosterols from pollen to produce 24-methylenecholesterol and other sterols as they cannot directly synthesize cholesterol from phytosterols.  The sting of queens is not barbed like a worker's sting, and queens lack the glands that produce beeswax. Bee brood – the eggs, larvae or pupae of honey bees – is nutritious and seen as a delicacy in countries such as Indonesia, Mexico, Thailand, and many African countries; it has been consumed since ancient times by the Chinese and Egyptians. Without specialized adaptations for specific flowers, their ability to reach pollen and nectar is often limited. Overview.  Although propolis is alleged to have health benefits (tincture of Propolis is marketed as a cold and flu remedy), it may cause severe allergic reactions in some individuals. Tribe: Apini Latreille, 1802 Harmless stings: Their stings are often not capable of penetrating human skin. The dwarf honeybee, A. andreniformis, extends from the eastern foothills of the Himalayas eastward to Indochina, Sundaland and the â¦ However, other native bee species were kept and traded by indigenous peoples. The worker bees rotate through the cluster from the outside to the inside so that no bee gets too cold. , Drones are typically haploid, having only one set of chromosomes, and primarily exist for the purpose of reproduction. Nests are exposed with horizontal comb that is built attached to tree branches.  Worker policing is an example of forced altruism, where the benefits of worker reproduction are minimized and that of rearing the queen's offspring maximized. .  In addition, certain bees, including the western honey bee as well as Apis cerana, are known to engage in effective methods of nest thermoregulation during periods of varying temperature in both summer and winter. Actually, honeybees only attack when they are very provoked, so you are definitely safe as long as you do not disturb them when they are at work (pollinating flowers) or at home (hive).
The most recent phylogenetic analysis shows that both share a common ancestor with P.